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Short Description: Robert E. Larzelere is affiliated with Boys Town. William N. Schneider is affiliated with St. Mary's Hospital in Rochester, NY. David B. Larson is affiliated with the National Institute of Healthcare Research. Patricia L. Pike

Content Inside: i~ 36 ~ CHILD & FAMILY BEHAVIOR THERAPY The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences Robert E. Larzelere William N. Schneider David B. Larson Patricia L. Pike alone-(93 hrS.), reasOning alone (8.8), or other responses.{9.4);-p < .00 1. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive developmental and behaviomr pelspet,;li es.uf parental disclplliie. Corporal and nony corporal forms of punishment are also compared. [Articlecopiesavail- ~/ able from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. , E-mail address:gelinfo@haworth.com} There has been a longstanding controversy about the use of aversives in modifying children's behavior (Axelrod, 1983; Marx & Hillix, 1979). Although this controversy has occurred to some extent among behavioral psychologists (e.g., Lutzker, 1994; McNeil, Clemens-Mowrer, Gwwitch~ & Funderfunk, i 994), non-behaviorists are far less likely to view parental use of aversives as ever preferable to non-aversive discipline responses (Hoffman, 1977; Kochanska, 1991; Miller, 1990; Straus, 1994). Cognitive developmental psychologists, for example, tend to view reasoning more favorably than any aversives (e.g., Hoffman, 1977; Kochanska, 1991;' Lepper, 1983), whereas behaviorists are more likely to emphasize time out more than reasoning as a response to misbehavior (e.g., Blum, Williams, Friman, & Christopherson, 1995; Forehand & McMahon, 1981; Patterson, 1982; Roberts, Hatzenbuehler, & Bean, 1981). Especially now that people are calling for prevention as a means for reducing societal violence, we need a better understanding of the relative effectiveness of these alternative discipline responses. What are the relative effects of reasoning and punishers as discipline responses, especially when used by untrained parents? Are nonco-rpc:5ral-punisheisuch as time s out more effective than corporal punishment, which is used by about 90% of Amcrican parents? This study attempts to advance understanding of these issues by contrasting predictions from behavioral and cognitive de- ., ABSTRACT. To compare the effectiveness of maternal punishment (e.g., time out, spanking), reasoning, and the combination of the two, 40 volunteer mothers recorded their responses to incidents of toddler fighting and disobedience in a structured diary for 4 weeks. Punishment frequency correlated positively with misbehavior frequency, but non-punishment responses correlated even more strongly with misbehavior. The mean delay until a misbehavior recurrence was significantly longer after a punishment-reasoning combination (e.g., 20.0 waking hours until a fighting recurrence) than after punishment Robert E. Larzelere is affiliated with Boys Town. William N. Schneider is affiliated with St. Mary's Hospital in Rochester, NY. David B. Larson is affiliated with the National Institute of Healthcare Research. Patricia L. Pike is affiliated with Biola University. Address correspondence to Robert E. Larzelere, Youth Care Building, Boys Town, NE 68010. Electronic mail may be sent via Internet to LARZELERE@ BOYSTOWN.ORG. Students providing indispensable help included Joyce Handler, Angela Rose Huntsman, Diana E\liott, Richard Erenst, Jack Young, Shari Bridgman, Sharmon Skill, Celia Kavanagh, Thomas Young, Roberta Miller, and Theodore Myer. The authors thank Dan Daly, Pat Friman, Robert McMahon, Gerald Patterson, Mark Roberts, Penelope Trickett and Joseph Zanga for critiques of previous drafts of this paper. S~Rions of this research was provided by NIMH Post-Doctoral Ti'iIi'ilIng Grant T~ 17126-07 to Oregon Social Learning Center, a Biola University Faculty Research Grant, and a Biola University Sabbatical Grant. - --vetopmentatperspecrtves:- behavior. The bifurcation of research on these issues is unfortunate because behavioral and cognitive developmental persp~ctives on parental socialization complement each other in several important ways (Table I). In general, cognitive perspectives (e.g., Dix, 1993; Eisenberg et aI., 1992; Grusec & Goodnow, 1994; Hoffinan, 1983; Kochanska, 1991; Kuczynski, Kochanska, Radke-Yarrow, & Girnius-Brown, 1987; Lepper, 1983; Maccoby & Martin, 1983) have more of a dispositional emphasis on what is occurring internally within the developing child. A behavioral perspective (e.g., Barkley, 1987; Dangel & Polster, 1984; Eyberg & Boggs, 1989; Forehand & McMahon, 1981; Patterson, 1982; Roberts & Powers, 1990) has more of an environmental emphasis on the effects of external contingencies on the child's --- , Whereas some implications of cognitive and behavioral perspectives - Child &-Eamily Behavior Therapy, Vol. 18(3) 1996 @ 1996 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 1.- ,


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